For many centuries, for agricultural purposes(to get fiber and oil) hemp was grown as an annual herb.
After evolving the presence of the phytochemical drug component d-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Canada prohibited its cultivation since 1938.
Now, in Canada growing low THC form of hemp is legal (The European Union has been established a 0.3% THC as standard).
Annually, low THC hemp is valued in the global market at $100–200 million annually. Per year increase in The North American market rates up to $8–10 million.
The amount of a-tocopherol in the commercial hemp seed oil (Fountain of Life and Hempola) is at 62 and 95% higher levels, respectively with compared to those obtained from seeds.
Mclaughlin and Weihrauch (1979) were proposed the formula to find the biologically active vitamin E content relative to that of a-tocopherol. The biologically active vitamin E content relative to that of a-tocopherol ranged from 10.9 to 13.6 mg/100 g of oil for the untreated hemp seed and the commercial hemp seed oil, respectively. peanut oil, olive oil, and soybean oil have the same amount of Vitamin E content as in hempseed oil (Ensminger and Ensminger, 1993).
The ratio of the tocopherol isomers in Melissa oﬃcinalis L. And Salvia oﬃcinalis L. (Lamiaceae) at 6:1:91:2 that resembled the ratio of tocopherols isomers a :b:g:d in hempseed oil was 5:2:90:3(Ivanov and Aitzetmüller, 1998).
History of cannabis
Cannabis having the same family as hemp with genus Cannabis, it includes in human use from a long history.
In ancient history cannabis didn’t grow to get a lot of benefits, however, it was grown at the beginning of Asia Around five hundred before Christ, for herbal medicine purposes.
In America, the history of cannabis cultivation is configured from the era in which Americans grew hemp for textiles and rope/twine purposes.
Some secondary metabolites that have the ability to protect the developing seed from pathogens and pests are found in Cannabis and aromatic compounds (mostly terpene compounds common in several plants (Clarke, 1977; McPartland et al., 2000).The Primary cannabinoids are Psychoactive delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) that configured in all Cannabis.
To attract human attention in evolutionary phase THC and aromatic psychoactive secretions are playing a vital role, and in the modern world, breeding and worldwide dispersion of Cannabis cultivars will be continued due to these primary cannabinoids (Clarke, 1998; Pollan, 2001).
Importance of hemp and cannabis plant
Hemp is a useful plant and its seeds, stalk, flowers, and leaves are used to get oil, fiber, and the narcotic hashish respectively.
The edible seeds are a rich source of protein, fiber, and magnesium and the amount of oil about 30% is configured from the edible seeds. Valuable essential fatty acids are present in Hemp seed oil is rich amount (Journal of the International Hemp Association, 3, 4–7 (Pate, 1999)).
For human nutrition hempseed oil has been recommended to be absolutely balanced due to the present magnitude relation (3:1) of the two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids).
The oil, due of this feature and therefore the due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and g-linolenic acid this oil is assumed good as an ingredient for the light body oils and lipid-enriched creams that known for their high penetration into the skin (Rausch, 1995).
Currently, it is, well-recognized that, the patients suffering from a chronic debilitating disorder like as AIDS/ HIV (Ware et al., 2003), brain disorders and chronic non-cancer pain are using Cannabis sativa (marijuana, weed, pot) to cure their disorders (Gross et al., 2004).
For the management of symptoms like pain, poor sleep, nausea, stress, and anxiety there are multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis present. Since 2002, under license to Health Canada cannabis for medical use has been created by Prairie Plant Systems Inc (PPS)
Uses of Hemp seed oil and hemp plant oil- CBD
Hemp seed oil
To manufacture paints, varnishes, soaps, and edible oil with a low smoke point hemp seed oil may be used.
Caged-birds were feeding commercially through the seed of hemp, in the past.
DNA damage, decrease cancer hazard are may be protected by hempseed oil due to the collaboration of high levels of g-tocopherol with a-tocopherol (Elmadfa and Park, 1999).
There is a countable characteristic of hemp seed oil. In hemp seed oil UV-V bands are centered at wavelengths of 412, 453, 482 and 670 nm.
By Munsell color, it was indicated that the yellow color of the oil is in accordance with strong absorbance at 412, 453, and 482 nm of the blue and violet region. UVC (100–290 nm) and UVB (290–320 nm) both are ranges that absorb hemp seed oil powerfully. Both UVB and UVA (320–400 nm) are the regions in which oil had piacular transmittance, and therefore, it can be used as a UV protectant because it has high shielding power (SPF) and protection factor (PFA) scores.
That is the reason, both UVA (an origin of oxidative stress to the skin) and UVB may be protected through hemp seed oil.
For the prevention of heart diseases, serum cholesterol and atherosclerosis high ratio of P/S is regarded as favorable (Rudel et al., 1998).
In vegetable oils the ratio is low then that of, the ratio of n-6 to n-3, fatty acids were 2, The iodine number was reported for hemp seed oil, that was approximated to be 161 that is within range to (140-170) (Theimer and Mölleken, 1995).
Hemp plant oil
The effects in the body are manufactured by all cannabinoids, as well as CBD, via attaching to bound receptors. certain cannabinoids CBD are produced by its own in the human body.
The CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors are 2 receptors for cannabinoids CBD), while throughout the body CB1 receptors are present, however, several are within the brain.
Movement and coordination, thinking, appetite, and memories, pain, emotions, and mood, as well as other different functions, are controlled by CB1 receptors in the brain. in the immune system, the most common receptors are CB2 receptors.
Researchers believed that CBD attached to CB2 receptors, however, it actively seems that, CBD doesn't attach to the receptor directly.
Instead, it directs the body to use its own cannabinoids more efficiently.
Differences between hemp and cannabis plant in different aspects
Central Asia is the center of origin for hemp.
In China hemp cultivation to get fiber was recorded about 2800 BCE and in the Christian era it was practiced in the Mediterranean countries of Europe, during the middle ages spread throughout the rest of Europe. in the 1500s it was planted in Chile and a century later in North America.
It is one of the ancient plants that was domesticated in India.
Cannabis evolutionary history and human interactions are most ancient and believed that its domestication will continue throughout the future.
To increase the quality of all of these products and the yield human had developed different agricultural techniques, which led to the breeding of Cannabis cultivars for specific parameters like fiber, seed, or drug production based on local cultural preferences. between Cannabis populations there is enough Phenotypic variation that is essential for breeding.
In different surveys, it is documented that there is a wide range of cultivated fiber, seed, and drug varieties.
Habitat based differentiation
Originally it spread from the Indian subcontinent, China to France and Russia to Africa. It requires can grow mostly in all soil types.
It grows naturally. For the growth of Cannabis Plants, there will be well-drained soils, adequate sunlight, Warmth, and moisture required, most naturally growing populations are found across northern temperate latitudes. Cannabis grows efficiently under natural environmental conditions, along with exposed riverbanks, the margins of agricultural land, lakesides and other areas that are not disturbed by humans.